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Richard Bruno

Director of OARDC, Department of Human Sciences
Professor, Department of Human Sciences

Program Area: Human Nutrition

(614) 292-5522
bruno.27@osu.edu

Biography

Dr. Richard Bruno is a professor of human nutrition in the Department of Human Sciences. He is a bionutritionist and registered dietitian with expertise in the areas of phytochemical and antioxidant utilization and metabolism in relation to free radical-mediated toxicology.

Education

  • PhD, Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University - Columbus, Ohio
  • MS, Human Nutrition, University of Delaware - Newark, Delaware
  • BS,  Applied Nutrition (minor in Biology), University of Delaware - Newark, Delaware

Research Interests

  • Nutritional Science
    • Antioxidants
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Phytochemicals

Research Summary

The research conducted in Bruno's laboratory aims to define the mechanisms regulating the bioavailability of phytochemicals, particularly vitamin E and polyphenols, and the mechanisms by which these dietary agents protect against oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses that otherwise contribute to vascular endothelial dysfunction and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). His work routinely utilizes obese experimental models and clinical populations having heightened oxidative stress and inflammatory responses with the underlying goal of translating experimental findings into practical recommendations that promote optimal health in humans. Current studies led by his laboratory are directed at:

  1. Improving the bioavailability of polyphenols using dietary manipulations and nano-emulsions
  2. Defining α-tocopherol bioavailability and dietary requirements in individuals with metabolic syndrome
  3. Identifying the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of green tea during NASH
  4. Defining the vasoprotective activities of γ-tocopherol supplementation during smoking cessation
  5. Determining the mechanisms by which acute hyperglycemia impairs vascular function, and identifying practical dietary strategies that limit hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress responses that otherwise induce vascular dysfunction in a nitric oxide-dependent manner.

Grants

Active Projects

  • Transcriptional Regulation of Hepatic Inflammation by Green Tea Extract in Rodent Models of Oxidative Stress. Sponsor: U.S. Department of Agriculture
    Goal: Define mechanisms by which green tea prevents NFkB-dependent inflammatory responses during NASH.
  • Regulation of Postprandial Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Vascular Function By Non-Fat Milk.  Sponsor: National Dairy Council
    Goal: To conduct clinical studies in prediabetic adults to examine the extent to which dairy proteins and fat regulate hyperglycemic-dependent responses that impair vascular function by inducing oxidative stress.
  • Cardioprotective Activities of Whole Eggs on Vascular Endothelial Function in Adults with Prediabetes. Sponsor: Egg Nutrition Center
    Goal: To utilize eggs and egg components as a practical strategy to ameliorate hyperglycemia-induced vascular dysfunction by limiting oxidative stress responses that reduce nitric oxide bioavailability.
  • Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Green Tea During Obesity-Induced NASH. Sponsor: Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center
    Goal: To better defin the hepatoprotective mechanisms by which green tea suppresses NFkB activation in a diet-induced obese model of NASH.
  • Dairy Fat as a Mediator of Vitamin E Adequacy in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome. Sponsor: National Dairy Council
    Goal: To define α-tocopherol bioavailability in response to dairy fat and evaluate dietary vitamin E requirements in individuals with metabolic syndrome.


Recently Completed Projects

  • Green Tea Confections for Managing Postprandial Hyperglycemia-Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction. Sponsor: The Ohio State University Food Innovation Center
    Goal: To develop a novel green tea catechin containing confection that attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia and its associated detremental responses that induce vascular endothelial dysfunction.
  • Vasoprotective Activities of Low-Fat Milk in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome. Sponsor: Dairy Research Institute
  • Goal: To define the acute vasoprotective effects of low-fat milk ingestion on postprandial changes in vascular endothelial function and nitric oxide homeostasis in individuals with metabolic syndrome.
  • Cardioprotective Synergy of Smoking Cessation and γ-Tocopherol in Restoring Vascular Endothelial Function. Sponsor: Connecticut Department of Public Health (2011-2013)
  • Goal: Examine the extent to which dietary γ-tocopherol supplementation improves vascular function in combination with smoking cessation by lowering oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses.
  • Evaluation of the Bioactivity of Green Tea in an Animal Model of Hepatic Oxidative Stress. Sponsor: U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Goal: Define hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of green tea that reduce oxidative stress responses leading to liver injury in association with obesity-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Selected Publications

Bruno has authored more than 75 peer-reviewed publications and book chapters since 2005. Select publications from the past five years include:

2015

  1. *M-Y Chung, *E Mah, C Masterjohn, SK Noh, HJ Park, RM Clark, Y-K Park, J-Y Lee, RS Bruno. (2015).Green tea lowers hepatic COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 in rats with dietary fat-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.  J Med Food, 18(6):648-55.
  2. Y Guo, RS Bruno. (2015). Endogenous and exogenous mediators of quercetin bioavailability. J Nutr Biochem, 26(3):201-210.
  3. BM Volk, LJ Kunces, DJ Freidenreich, BR Kupchak, C Saenz, JC Artistizabal, ML Fernandez, RS Bruno, CM Maresh, WJ Kraemer, SD Phinney, JS Volek. (2014). Effects of step-wise increases in dietary carbohydrate on circulating saturated fatty acids and palmitoleic acid in adults with metabolic syndrome. PLoS One. 21;9(11):e113605.
  4. KD Ballard, RS Bruno. (2015). Protective Role of Dairy and its Constituents on Vascular Endothelial Function Independent of Blood Pressure-Lowering Activities. Nutr Rev. 73(1):36-50.
  5. R Pei, E Mah, SW Leonard, MG Traber, RS Bruno. (2015). α-Tocopherol supplementation reduces 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol accumulation by decreasing γ-tocopherol in young adult smokers.  Free Radic Res, 49(9): 1114-21.
  6. R Pei, M Yu, RS Bruno, B Bolling. (2015). Phenolic and tocopherol content of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellate) berries. J Func Foods, 16:305-314.

2014

  1. K Sankavaram, L Chong, RS Bruno, HC Freake. (2014). Zinc status alters growth and oxidative stress responses in rat hepatoma cells. Nutr Cancer, 66(1):104-16.
  2. TH Tran, Y Guo, D Song, RS Bruno, X Lu. (2014). Quercetin-containing self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for improving oral bioavailability. J Pharm Sci, 103:840-852.
  3. Y Guo, E Mah, RS Bruno. Quercetin Bioavailability Is Associated With Inadequate Plasma Vitamin C Status And Greater Plasma Endotoxin In Healthy Adults.  Nutrition. In press.
  4. KD Ballard, RS Bruno. Protective Role of Dairy and its Constituents on Vascular Endothelial Function Independent of Blood Pressure-Lowering Activities. Nutr Rev.  In press.
  5. E Mah, R Pei, Y Guo, C Masterjohn, KD Ballard, BA Parker, AW Taylor, MG Traber, JS Volek, RS Bruno. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α.  Exp Biol Med. In press.

2013

  1. KD Ballard, BR Kupchak, BM Volk, A Shkreta, C Liptak, AS Ptolemy, E Mah, MS Kellogg, RS Bruno, RL Seip, CM Maresh, WJ Kraemer, JS Volek. (2013). Acute effects of ingestion of a novel whey-derived extract on vascular endothelial function in overweight, middle-aged men and women. Br J Nutr, 13:109(5):882-93.
  2. E Mah, SK Noh, KD Ballard, HJ Park, JS Volek, RS Bruno. (2013). Supplementation of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols in healthy men protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial hyperglycemia. J Nutr Biochem. 24(1):196-203.
  3. Y Guo, E Mah, CG Davis, T Jalili, MG Ferruzzi, OK Chun, RS Bruno. (2013). Dietary fat increases quercetin bioavailability in overweight adults. Mol Nutr Food Res, 57(5):896-905.
  4. C Masterjohn, E Mah, Y Park, R Pei, J Lee, JE Manautou, RS Bruno. (2013). Acute glutathione depletion induces hepatic methylglyoxal accumulation by impairing its detoxification to D-lactate. Exp Biol Med, 238(4):360-9.
  5. JS Volek, BM Volk, AL Gómez, LJ Kunces, BR Kupchak, DJ Freidenreich, JC Aristizabal, C Saenz, C Dunn-Lewis, KD Ballard, EE Quann, DL Kawiecki, SD Flanagan, BA Comstock, MS Fragala, JE Earp, ML Fernandez, RS Bruno, AS Ptolemy, MD Kellogg, CM Maresh, WJ Kraemer. (2013). Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. J Amer Coll Nutr, 32(2):122-35.
  6. C Masterjohn, Y-K Park, J-Y Lee, SK Noh, SI Koo, RS Bruno. (2013). Dietary fructose feeding increases adipose methylglyoxal accumulation in association with low expression and activity of glyoxalase-2. Nutrients, 5, 3311-28.
  7. LJ Kunces, LK Cusack, BR Kupchak, BM Volk, DJ Freidenreich, JC Aristizabal, C Saenz, R Pei, Y Guo, ML Fernandez, RS Bruno, CM Maresh, WJ Kraemer, A Pronczuk, KC Hayes, JS Volek. (2013). Triglyceride recrystallized phytosterols in fat-free milk improve lipoprotein profiles more than unmodified free phytosterols in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Am Coll Nutr, 32(4):234-42.
  8. KD Ballard, E Mah, Y Guo, R Pei, JS Volek, RS Bruno. (2013). Low-fat milk ingestion prevents postprandial hyperglycemia-mediated impairments in vascular endothelial function in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr, 143(10):1602-10.
  9. E Mah, R Pei, Y Guo, KD Ballard, T Barker, VE Rogers, BA Parker, AW Taylor, MG Traber, JS Volek, RS Bruno. (2013) γ-Tocopherol-rich supplementation additively improves vascular endothelial function during smoking cessation.  Free Radic Biol Med, 65: 1291-1299.
  10. KM Mangano, HL Hutchins-Wiese, AM Kenny, SJ Walsh, RH Abourizk, RS Bruno, R Lipcius, P Fall, A Kleppinger, L Kenyon-Pesce, KM Prestwood, JE Kerstetter. (2013). Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr Res, 33(12):1026-33.

2012

  1. MY Chung, HJ Park, M O’Conner, J Manautou, RS Bruno. (2012). Green tea extract protects against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in ob/ob mice by decreasing oxidative and nitrative stress responses induced by pro-inflammatory enzymes. J Nutr Biochem, 23(4):361-7.
  2. C Masterjohn, E Mah, Y Guo, SI Koo, RS Bruno (2012). γ-Tocopherol abolishes postprandial increases in plasma methyglyoxal following an oral dose of glucose in healthy, college-aged men. J Nutr Biochem, 23(3):292-8.
  3. HJ Park, J-Y Lee, M-Y Chung, Y-K Park, AM Bower, SI Koo, C Giardina, RS Bruno. (2012). Green tea extract suppresses NFκB activation and inflammatory responses in diet-induced obese rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Nutr, 142(1):57-63.
  4. C Masterjohn and RS Bruno. (2012). Therapeutic potential of green tea on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  Nutr Rev, 70(1): 41-56. (Invited).
  5.  A Larson, MAH Witman, Y Guo, K Black, M Hayman, RS Richardson, RS Bruno, T Jalili, JD Symons. (2012). Acute, quercetin-induced reductions in blood pressure in hypertensives are not secondary to lower plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity or endothelin-1:nitric oxide. Nutr Res, 32(8):557-64.
  6. E Mah and RS Bruno. (2012). Postprandial hyperglycemia on vascular endothelial function: mechanisms and consequences. Nutr Res, 32(10): 727-40.

2011

  1. HJ Park, DD DiNatale, M-Y Chung, J-Y Lee, SI Koo, RS Bruno. (2011). Green tea extract attenuates hepatic steatosis by decreasing adipose lipogenesis and enhancing hepatic antioxidant defenses in ob/ob mice. J Nutr Biochem, 22(4):393-400.
  2. HJ Park, E Mah, RS Bruno. (2010). Validation of HPLC-boron doped diamond detection for assessing hepatic glutathione redox status.  Anal Biochem, 407(2):151-9.
  3. J Park, SL Marjani, L Lai, M Samuel, D Wax, SR Davis, RS Bruno, RS Prather, X Yang, XC Tian. (2010). Altered gene expression profiles in the brain, kidney, and lung of deceased neonatal cloned pigs. Cell Reprogram, 12(5):589-97.
  4. A Hsu, RS Bruno, CV Loehr, RH Dashwood, TM Bray, and E Ho. (2011). Dietary soy and tea mitigate chronic inflammation and prostate cancer via NFκB pathway in the Noble rat model. J Nutr Biochem, 22(5):502-10.
  5. DC Montrose, NA Horelik, JP Madigan, GD Stoner, L-S Wang, RS Bruno, HJ Park, C Giardina, DW Rosenberg. (2011). Anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized black raspberry powder in ulcerative colitis. Carcinogenesis, 32(3):343-50.
  6. Y Guo and RS Bruno. (2011). Vasoprotective activities of quercetin. AgroFood Industry Hi-Tech, 22(1):16-19.
  7. HC Kuiper, RS Bruno, MG Traber, JF Stevens. (2011). Vitamin C supplementation lowers urinary levels of 4-hydroperoxy-2-nonenal metabolites in humans.  Free Rad Biol Med, 50(7):848-53.
  8. E Mah, MD Matos, DM Kawiecki, KD Ballard, Y Guo, JS Volek, RS Bruno. (2011). Vitamin C status is related to proinflammatory responses and impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy, college-aged lean and obese men. J Am Diet Assoc, 111(5):737-43.
  9. Park J, Lai L, Samuel M, Wax D, Bruno RS, French R, Prather RS, Yang X, Tian XC. (2011). Altered gene expression profiles in the brain, kidney, and lung of one-month old live cloned pigs. Cellular Reprogramming, 13(3):215-23.
  10. M Torres-Gonzalez, RS Bruno, SF Yeung, SR Davis, JE Kim, JS Volek, M-L Fernandez. (2011). Dietary cholesterol and low carbohydrate modulate hepatic lipid accumulation and antioxidant status in guinea pigs.  Current Topics in Biomedical Research, 13(1):13-24.
  11. CP Wong, LP Nguyen, SK Noh, TM Bray, RS Bruno, E Ho. (2011). Induction of regulatory T cells by green tea polyphenol EGCG. Immunol Lett, 139(1-2):7-13.
  12. Y Yang, JM Seo, A Nguyen, TX Pham, HJ Park, Y Park, RS Bruno, J Lee. (2011). Astaxanthin-rich extract from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis lowers plasma lipid concentrations and enhances antioxidant defense in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. J Nutr, 141(9):1611-7.
  13. E Mah, SK Noh, KD Ballard, ME Matos, JS Volek, RS Bruno. (2011). Postprandial hyperglycemia impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy men by inducing lipid peroxidation and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. J Nutr, 141(11):1961-8. (¥Received commentary: American Society for Nutrition (2011). An international press release was issued that highlighted the findings of this investigation).

2010

  1. M-Y Chung, SF Yeung, HJ Park, JS Volek, RS Bruno. (2010). Dietary α- and γ-tocopherol supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory-related responses in an obese mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Nutr Biochem, 21(12):1200-6.
  2. HJ Park and RS Bruno. (2010). Hepatoprotective activities of green tea in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. AgroFOOD Industry High-tech. (Invited Review), 21(1): 37-40.
  3. HJ Park, SR Davis, H-Y Liang, DW Rosenberg, RS Bruno. (2010). Chlorogenic acid differentially alters hepatic and small intestinal thiol redox status without protecting against azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice.  Nutr Cancer, 62(3):362-370.
  4. A Flögel, D-O Kim, S-J Chung, WO Song, M-L Fernandez, RS Bruno, SI Koo, OK Chun. (2010). Development and validation of an algorithm to establish a total antioxidant capacity database of U.S. diet. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 61(6):600-23.